Рũßłїѕђёď åŗțїćłё #3

Brouwer, Ingeborg. 2010. ‘Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review.’ Accessed April 05, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830458/

Effects of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans- A Quantitative Review:

          Trans fatty acids can be obtained from industrial hydrogenation of vegetable oil and fish oils (artificial trans fatty acids) or from the biohydrogenation from ruminant animals such as cows and sheep (natural trans fatty acids). The consumption of these hydrogenated products results in the increase or decrease of HDL and LDL lipoproteins in the body which places a risk on a person’s heart.

            In this report 39 studies were conducted using persons with controlled diets. Twenty-nine used industrial trans fatty acids, six used ruminant trans fatty acids while seventeen used conjugated trans linoleic acid (CLA). Linear regression analysis was uses to determine if these individuals were affected. The slope of the line for LDL to HDL ration was steeper for trans industrial fatty acids than for ruminant fatty acids or CLA. Statistical analysis was used to compare trans fatty acids with saturated fatty acids.

            The results indicated that there was significant weight loss and gain for some individuals with an increased risk of heart and liver disease. There is a quantitative comparison of the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA with industrial trans fatty acids on blood lipoproteins in humans. The analysis shows that all three classes of trans fatty acids raise the ratio of LDL to HDL. The effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on the LDL to HDL ratio was less than that of industrial trans fatty acids. The trans fatty acid with double bonds raised the LDL and lowered the HDL levels of cholesterol.         

            Thus, it was concluded that the removal of all the ruminants trans fatty acids (meat and milk) would lower the total trans fatty acid intake. Further studies need to be conducted to determine if the effects are due to chance. It some countries such as Denmark trans fatty acids are banned from the food industry.  

            This article helped me to better understand trans fatty acids to a larger extent. My knowledge of why trans fatty acids has such a negative impact on our bodies was broadened. Although this substance tantalized our taste buds and increases the shelf life of certain products it is a major component of cholesterol molecules. This as it is known leads to atherosclerosis which leads to heart attacks and strokes.

             I hope that after reading this  blog post you try to change your lifestyle to a more healthier way of living. Remember to exercise regularly, drink 6-8 glasses of water, include a large amount of fresh fruits and vegetables, and keep in mind that what you put into your body will affect you sooner or later.



Рũßłїѕђёď åŗțїćłё #2

 Mattar et al. 2012. ‘Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic and clinical factors.’ Accessed March 28, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401057/

Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic and clinical factors:

Lactose is a carbohydrate found in milk. This disaccharide is made up of glucose and galactose subunits. Seventy five percent of the world’s population loses their ability to breakdown the disaccharide into monosaccharide units that are easily digested. Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down lactose products. In infants breakdown is at its max from birth till 2 years. An aging person can fall into a group of lactase non-persistence (hypolactasia) or lactase-persistence activities. Reduction in lactose renders persons lactose intolerant that develop symptoms in identifying the presence of this diagnosis. 

            Individuals with hypolactasia and lactase persistence have identical coding sequences which were confirmed in a study where DNA was collected from subjects in various parts of the world. The LCT-13910CT and LCT-13910TT genotypes were associated with the lactase-persistence phenotype. This indicates that it dominates the person where they is a lactose digester. If the genotype was LCT- 13910CC and LCT-13910T is absent the person suffers from lactose mal digestion.

            The first method for detection of lactose mal digestion was direct biochemical assay of lactase activity from a jejunal sample. This was performed using a glucose oxidase reagent which detects glucose molecules present in the lactose. This method has been replaced by endoscopic duodenal biopsy. The lactose breath test is also a method for determining the presence of lactose in the body. It is based on fermentation of undigested lactose by intestinal flora producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane which is absorbed and eliminated via the lungs. The result of these gases is bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Undigested lactose acidifies the colon and increases diarrhea while some may experience constipation.

            A false-negative result can occur if antibiotics have been recently consumed within one month of testing or if the pH is too acidic to inhibit bacterial activity or if there has been bacterial growth. The genetic test provides a more direct result where hypolactasia or lactase persistence genotype is found. This was formed due to the discovery of lactase-persistence alleles. This method was deemed better than the breath test since there is no cut off level or dependence on the amount of lactose or influenced by the duration of the test and age of the individual.

            Individuals suffering with this problem need to maintain their intake of calcium due to their restricted milk diet. A deficient in calcium result in bone diseases. A key to management of lactose intolerance is a recommended of no more than 20g of lactose without significant symptoms. A person’s diet changes where they would have to consume it with other foods and prevent lactose tablets. Supplements of calcium and vitamin D are produced which may be expensive to the consumer.  Yoghurt containing live cultures providing endogenous beta galactosidase is an alternative source of calories and calcium and is well tolerated by many lactose-intolerant patients. Lactose hydrolyzed milk is another safe source for patients.

            This article cleared up the effects of an individual suffering from the absence of the enzyme called lactase which breaks down lactose found in dairy products such as milk. It enhances the symptoms of a patient suffering from lactose intolerance and deals with the different mechanisms of detecting lactose in the body and suggests which method is better due to the information gathered.

            Hope you learned something as well…

Рũßłїѕђёď åŗțїćłё #1

Kahn et al. 2010. “Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans.” Accessed March 28, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859951/

Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans:

         Adipose tissue in humans is composed of brown and white fat. Brown adipose tissue affects the entire body where it modifies weight gain, alters insulin sensitivity and works with the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). On the other hand white adipose tissue stores energy and is the site for release of hormones and cytokines for body metabolism and resistance.

            In this article the authors conduct research using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and PET-CT scans to determine the presence of deposits of brown adipose tissue.  From 2003 – 2006 data was collected on patients that were studied.  Various statistical tests were used to analyze the information which includes a Mann-Whitney U test and a Student’s t-test. Factors were analyzed closely including sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking history and medication history. This was performed using logistic regression to determine if there was a relationship between humans and the various factors.

            Brown adipose tissue was found in areas of the body such as the neck, muscles of the face, thoracic and abdomen. Evidence was obtained which showed that adipose tissue decrease rapidly in increased outdoor temperatures. It was detected to be a higher concentration of 7.5% in women than in men 3.1%. Results obtained indicated that the patients younger than 50 years, those the least obese, those with the lowest glucose levels, who is not using beta-blockers and who had never smoked showed that they were the most frequently detected for brown adipose tissue using the univariate analysis. It was detected to be less frequently in patients above 64 years. BMI was not a factor which predicted the presence of the brown adipose tissue in the multivariate analysis.

            In conclusion men contained more deposits of white adipose tissue than women while women below the age of 50 contained browner adipose tissue than men.



Did you all know that VIAGRA is a drug that was developed in 1998 as a pharmaceutical product used to treat high blood pressure but it was later observed that in young medical students it causes an adverse event called an erection which was a shock to the scientists. ‘Viagra is the first orally administered phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 as the first truly effective oral medication for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.’

How does this inhibitor work? The smooth muscle in the human penis is called the corpus cavernosum which contains compounds called PDE receptors. The type-5 receptor is responsible for creating the erection. Nitric oxide is released from nerves within the corpus cavernosum during sexual stimulation which activates an enzyme called guanylate cyclasa. This enzyme helps elevate the level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which in turn acts to relax the cavernosum tissue and an erection occurs. By inhibiting the breakdown of the cGMP the ingredients in Viagra induce and enhance the relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Thus Viagra prevents the breakdown of a compound that produces an erection thereby prolonging it and even stimulating its occurrence in men who would not have a strong erection otherwise. When taken orally Viagra is rapidly absorbed and maximum concentrations are seen within one hour after taking the pill while the speed which a drug is broken down by the body is about three to five hours.





(Note this post is not encouraging any one to use this inhibitor)



It is a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual’s ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly. There are three forms of this disease Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency, Galactokinase deficiency or Galactose-6-phosphate epimerase deficiency.

Infants with galactosemia can develop symptoms in the first few days of life if they eat formula or breast milk that contains lactose. The symptoms may be due to a serious blood infection with the bacteria E. coli.

  • convulsions
  • irritability
  • poor feeding habits where the baby refuses to eat formula containing milk
  • poor weight gain
  • yellow skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
  • vomiting

gal 1

gal 3


The above photo indicates that the absence of the GALT enzyme leads to health problems as indicated above.





What is Hemolytic Anemia?

It is a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over. Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow is unable to replace the red blood cells that are being destroyed. Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia. The term “anemia” usually refers to a condition in which the blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.

You may not have symptoms if the anemia is mild. If the problem develops slowly, the first symptoms may be:

  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:

  • Blue color to the whites of the eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Light-headedness when you stand up
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath

  • Sore tongue

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway – a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells such as erythrocytes by maintaining the level of the   co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The NADPH in turn maintains the level of glutathione in these cells that helps protect the red blood cells against oxidative damage. Of greater quantitative importance  G6PD reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate. This NAD needs to present for erythrocyes to survive by making its energy and completing glycolysis. 







Careful you get dizzy…with all this enzymes

tantalizing pic

Enzymes is such a broad topic that i can’t seem to stop myself from obtaining more and more info on this topic everyday. 🙂



In the home:


  • can be used as washing powders and detergents which contain the enzymes amylase, lipases and proteases. These assist in the break down of stains that contain carbohydrate, fat and protein.

breeze           tide4

In food production:

  • amylases present in yeast are used in brewing and baking to convert sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

download                         images (1)

  • proteases are used in tenderising meat.


  • rennin is essential to create cheese.

download (1)

  • Invertase is used to make soft centred sweets such as thin chocolate covered mints.

cho1    cho2  cho3

In industrial processes:

  • amylases are used in textile and paper production.

texx          pap

  • ficin is used in photography processes.


  • bacterial proteases  used in making leather, textiles and in laundry.


  • catalase used in rubber production.


  • taq polymerase used in amplifying DNA found at crime scenes.


In Medicine:

  • pepsin is used in the pharmaceutical industry.


  • enzymes are uses for killing disease-causing micro organisms.


  • proteases prompt wound healing.


  • diagnosing certain diseases can be done eg – when the liver is affected enzymes leak into the bloodstream. 


  • glucose oxidase used to monitor blood sugar levels.


  • enzymes are used as medicines to replace enzyme deficiencies in patients like is the use of blood clotting factors to treat haemoplilia OR the opposite where proteases are used to degrade fibrin to prevent the formation of dangerous blood clots.


  • the chemical synthesis of complex drugs is difficult therefore companies turn to enzymes to perform chemical conversions.

  • used to aid digestion, to supplement the natural amylase, lipase and protease produced by the pancreas. People with lactose intolerance lose the enzyme lactase. Lactase supplements help to avoid stomach upsets for these people.   





Some of the pics are gruesome while on the other hand some are ironic….it even have those that are mouth watering (d piece of fry chicken).lol. Hope you enjoyed it🙂 🙂 🙂



                                       Pathophysiology of Leigh’s disease – it is also known as Leigh’s syndrome. It is a genetic disorder that affects the central nervous system. It is caused by a defect or mutation in the mitochondrial DNA or by deficiencies of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.  The genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources (ATP) that triggers the brain and motor movements. The symptoms begin in infancy such as lack of head control and poor sucking ability. Following there is a loss of appetite, vomiting, prolonged crying, fits and irritability. The individual result in having poor muscle tone and is usually weak. There may be kidney and respiratory problems associated. Most cases of Leigh’s disease are fatal during childhood.

Pictures showing the effects of this disease:

1               2                         3             3






Pathophysiology of Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) – TSD also referred to as type one GM2-gangliosidosis is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (hex-A) which results in a failure to process a lipid called GM2 ganglioside. Thus results in accumulated lipid in the brain, spleen and tissues. TSD begins in infancy where the child’s head control is lost by six to eight months of age. The infant cannot roll over or sit up. There is tightness of muscles and little flexibility. An excessive drooling and rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles become evident. Blindness and head enlargement occur by the second year. The disease worsens as the central nervous system progressively deteriorates. Constant nurse care is needed after age two. The disease is a progressive development of retardation, paralysis, blindness and death by the age of three or four years.


Symptoms of Tay-Sachs Disease include:

– Slowed Development 

– Weakened Muscles 

– Loss of Motor Skills 
– Seizures 
– Vision and Hearing Loss 
– Mental Retardation 
– Paralysis 
– Cherry-Red Spot (eye abnormality) 


– Death by Early Childhood









Lets go back in time…

lThe oldest known enzyme reaction is alcoholic fermentation until Louise Pasteur proved otherwise in 1857. Pasteur found that fermentation was caused by yeast cells digesting sugar for their own nourishment. He said that there was something called fermence that was able to convert the sugar to ethanol.

buchnerIn 1897  Eduard Buchner discovered that fermentation actually does not require the presence of living yeast cells. Buchner made an extract of yeast cells by grinding them and filtering off the remaining cell debris. Then he added a preservative ‘sugar’ to the resulting cell-free solution to preserve it for future study. He observed that fermentation, the formation of alcohol from sugar, occurred. Buchner then realized that living cells were not required for carrying out metabolic processes such as fermentation. Instead, there must be some small entities capable of converting sugar to alcohol. These entities were enzymes. After Buchner’s discovery, most scientists assumed that fermentation and other metabolic reactions were caused by enzymes.

sumnerAll attempts to isolate and determine the chemical nature of enzymes were unsuccessful until 1926. An American biochemist James Sumner isolated the enzyme urease from the jackbean after nine years of research. The enzymes pepsin and trypsin were isolated. It was later shown that enzymes are proteins.