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Brouwer, Ingeborg. 2010. ‘Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review.’ Accessed April 05, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830458/

Effects of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans- A Quantitative Review:

          Trans fatty acids can be obtained from industrial hydrogenation of vegetable oil and fish oils (artificial trans fatty acids) or from the biohydrogenation from ruminant animals such as cows and sheep (natural trans fatty acids). The consumption of these hydrogenated products results in the increase or decrease of HDL and LDL lipoproteins in the body which places a risk on a person’s heart.

            In this report 39 studies were conducted using persons with controlled diets. Twenty-nine used industrial trans fatty acids, six used ruminant trans fatty acids while seventeen used conjugated trans linoleic acid (CLA). Linear regression analysis was uses to determine if these individuals were affected. The slope of the line for LDL to HDL ration was steeper for trans industrial fatty acids than for ruminant fatty acids or CLA. Statistical analysis was used to compare trans fatty acids with saturated fatty acids.

            The results indicated that there was significant weight loss and gain for some individuals with an increased risk of heart and liver disease. There is a quantitative comparison of the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA with industrial trans fatty acids on blood lipoproteins in humans. The analysis shows that all three classes of trans fatty acids raise the ratio of LDL to HDL. The effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on the LDL to HDL ratio was less than that of industrial trans fatty acids. The trans fatty acid with double bonds raised the LDL and lowered the HDL levels of cholesterol.         

            Thus, it was concluded that the removal of all the ruminants trans fatty acids (meat and milk) would lower the total trans fatty acid intake. Further studies need to be conducted to determine if the effects are due to chance. It some countries such as Denmark trans fatty acids are banned from the food industry.  

            This article helped me to better understand trans fatty acids to a larger extent. My knowledge of why trans fatty acids has such a negative impact on our bodies was broadened. Although this substance tantalized our taste buds and increases the shelf life of certain products it is a major component of cholesterol molecules. This as it is known leads to atherosclerosis which leads to heart attacks and strokes.

             I hope that after reading this  blog post you try to change your lifestyle to a more healthier way of living. Remember to exercise regularly, drink 6-8 glasses of water, include a large amount of fresh fruits and vegetables, and keep in mind that what you put into your body will affect you sooner or later.

            Byee!

Did you know???

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Hey guys so I am wrapping up on my Biochemistry blog posts. Today I learnt that cholesterol can actually be beneficial to us humans although we think of it as having this negative impact on our lives. It is a compound of the sterol type, C27H45OH, found in most body tissues and important in metabolism.  It’s structural components is composed of:

  • 4 fused ring collectively referred to as the steroid nucleus
  • An OH group on C3 (hydrophilic polar head)
  • An alkyl side chain located on C17
  • 2 methyl groups on C10 and C13
  • A double bond present between C5 anC6
  • Ring D as seen on the picture above is the only 5 membered ring while the other 3 rings are composed of 6 members

The human body contains about 100 g of cholesterol. Most of this is incorporated in the membranes from which cells are constructed and is an indispensable component of them. The insulating layers of myelin wound around neurons are especially rich in cholesterol.

Other uses of cholesterol include the synthesis of the steroid hormones: progesterone, estrogens, androgens (e.g., testosterone), glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) and mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone).

Cholesterol is also the precursor from which the body synthesizes vitamin D.

One of the major uses of cholesterol is the synthesis of bile acids. These are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and are secreted in the bile. They are essential for the absorption of fat from the contents of the intestine. The liver synthesizes some 1500–2000 mg of new cholesterol each day. It synthesizes cholesterol from the products of fat metabolism.

Cholesterol is seen to be beneficial to the human body. It also has negative impacts on the human body. The health effects of cholesterol problems are due to a condition called atherosclerosis, which is narrowing and hardening of arteries. When  levels of cholesterol are too high, LDLs (low density lipoproteins) will leave extra cholesterol in the blood. If the HDLs (high density lipoproteins) cannot pick up all of this cholesterol it will begin to build up on your artery walls along with other fats and debris. This buildup of cholesterol is called plaque. Over time, plaque can cause narrowing of the arteries or atherosclerosis. Health effects of this process include:

  • High blood pressure – increases over 140/190
  • Heart attack- occurs when the supplyof blood and oxygen to part of the heart is blocked
  • Stroke – it is a sudden occurrence where a blood vessel in the brain gets blocked or ruptures
  • Agina – occurs when the heart is not getting enough oxygen-rich blood for a short time

I hoped you have learnt something that is beneficial in understanding this lipid molecule. Until next time…

References:

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Cholesterol.html

http://cholesterol.emedtv.com/high-cholesterol/health-effects-of-cholesterol.html

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fatty_acids

Unsaturated Fats:

characteristics include:

  • at least one carbon-carbon double bond

  • liquid at room temperature

  • kinks created which prevents packing

  • contain cis double bonds

  • monounsturated chain contains only one double bond eg. oleic acid

  • polyunsaturated fats contain more than one double bond eg. linoleic acid

  • sources are plants and fish fats

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lin

Saturated Fats:

characteristics include:

  • no carbon-carbon double bond

  • solid at room temperature

  • no kinks created so there is tightly packing

  • long, straight chains

  • eg. stearic acid and palmitic acid

  • sources are from animal fats

 

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Trans Fats:

It seemed like such a good thing once since it enhances the flavor, texture and shelf life of many processed foods. However, it comes with a health risk. Trans fatty foods tantalize a persons taste buds then travel through your digestive system to your arteries where they turn to sludge.

Small amounts of trans fats occur naturally in beef, lamb and full-fat dairy products. Most come from processing liquid vegetable oil to become a solid fat through a process called hydrogenation. 

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References:

http://www.myhealthnewsdaily.com/1902-the-truth-about-trans-fats.html

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w98/primer.html

http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/biology/MembranePage/index2.html

http://www.raw-milk-facts.com/fatty_acids_T3.html

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=866412&show=html