Questions to ask when studying cellular respiration:


1. where is glycolysis occurring?

2. what are the 10 enzyme involved?

3. what are the reactants and products formed?

4. is there any gain of loss at the end of glycolysis?

5. what does this process require in order to continue?

6. is there any cofactors necessary for the catalyzed reactions to continue?


1. what is the reactant and product involved?

2. what is the enzyme involved?

3. is there any cofactors needed for this process to continue?

4. at the end of this reaction what happens to the products formed (Acetyl-CoA)?

5. where in the cell does this process occur?


1. how many ATP, NADH and FADH2 is generated?

2. is ATP used in this process?

3. what product of respiration is formed at this stage through the metabolism of Acety-CoA?

hint- Glucose + Oxygen —-> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

C6H12O6 + 6O2 —-> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

4. where in the cell does this process occur?


1. what do you understand by the chemiosmosis theory?

2. where in the cell is the ETC located?

3. what is the product of respiration formed at this stage?

4. how is ATP generated by this process?

5. what do you understand by the terms ATP synthase, Complexes 1, 2, 3 and 4?

6. how do protons and electrons flow across and along the organelle’s membrane?



One of this week’s topic is the TCA cycle. It occurs after glycolysis, where 2 molecules of pyruvate is generated. This pyruvate is converted to acetyl – CoA via a linked reaction between glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle. Five cofactors are involved in this conversion which are: CoA-SH, NAD+, TPP, lipoate and FAD. In this process NAD+ is used and NADH is generated. The following diagram shows the various steps in this cycle.



The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle, is a fundamental metabolic pathway involving 8 enzymes essential for energy production through aerobic respiration. This pathway is also an important source of biosynthetic building blocks used in gluconeogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The Krebs cycle takes place in mitochondria where it oxidizes acetyl-CoA, releasing carbon dioxide and extracting energy primarily as the reduced high-energy electron carriers NADH and FADH2. NADH and FADH2 transfer chemical energy from metabolic intermediates to the electron transport chain to create a different form of energy, a gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy of the proton gradient in turn drives synthesis of the high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP. An acetyl-CoA molecule (2 carbons) enters the cycle when citrate synthase condenses it with oxaloacetate (4 carbons) to create citrate (6 carbons). One source of the acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic junction, derived not only from glycolysis but also from the oxidation of fatty acids. As the cycle proceeds, the Krebs cycle intermediates are oxidized, transferring their energy to create reduced NADH and FADH2. The oxidation of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway also releases two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, leaving the net carbons the same with each turn of the cycle. This carbon dioxide, along with more released by pyruvate dehydrogenase, is the source of CO2 released into the atmosphere when you breathe. The Krebs cycle is regulated to efficiently meet the needs of the cell and the organisms. The irreversible synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is one important regulatory step and is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP that indicate abundant energy. Citrate synthase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are all key regulatory steps in the cycle and are each inhibited by abundant energy in the cell, indicated through high concentrations of ATP or NADH. The activity of the Krebs cycle is closely linked to the availability of oxygen although none of the steps in the pathway directly use oxygen. Oxygen is required for the electron transport chain to function which recycles NADH back to NAD+ and FADH2 back to FADH, providing NAD+ and ADH required by enzymes in the Krebs cycle. If the oxygen supply to a muscle cell or a yeast cell is low NAD+ and FADH levels fall and the Krebs cycle cannot proceed forward so the cell must resort to fermentation to continue making ATP. Some Krebs cycle enzymes require non-protein cofactors for activity such as thiamine, vitamin B1. Insufficient quantities of this vitamin in the diet leads to decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and a decrease in the ability of the Krebs cycle to meet metabolic demands causing the disease beriberi.





Sir had mentioned…

What is the Cori Cycle?

It is also known as the  Lactic acid cycle. It is a metabolic pathway in carbohydrate metabolism that  links anaerobic glycolysis in muscle tissue to gluconeogenesis in the liver.

How is it important to metabolism?

  1. The Cori cycle involves 2 organs, the contracting muscle and the liver.
  2. It functions in anaerobic conditions when the muscles are contracting under reduced oxygen.
  3. The contracting muscles produce lactate (instead of pyruvate proceeding to acetyl CoA to TCA cycle) which is supplied to the liver.
  4. In the liver gluconeogenesis converts lactate to pyruvate and glucose.
  5. Glucose is then metabolised by contracting muscle via glycolysis, to pyruvate and acetyl CoA under aerobic condition (sufficient oxygen), and acetyl CoA enters TCA cycle. Otherwise the glucose goes through anaerobic glycolysis and the Cori cycle goes on till oxygen is sufficient.


Cori cycle