Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans:
Adipose tissue in humans is composed of brown and white fat. Brown adipose tissue affects the entire body where it modifies weight gain, alters insulin sensitivity and works with the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). On the other hand white adipose tissue stores energy and is the site for release of hormones and cytokines for body metabolism and resistance.
In this article the authors conduct research using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and PET-CT scans to determine the presence of deposits of brown adipose tissue. From 2003 – 2006 data was collected on patients that were studied. Various statistical tests were used to analyze the information which includes a Mann-Whitney U test and a Student’s t-test. Factors were analyzed closely including sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking history and medication history. This was performed using logistic regression to determine if there was a relationship between humans and the various factors.
Brown adipose tissue was found in areas of the body such as the neck, muscles of the face, thoracic and abdomen. Evidence was obtained which showed that adipose tissue decrease rapidly in increased outdoor temperatures. It was detected to be a higher concentration of 7.5% in women than in men 3.1%. Results obtained indicated that the patients younger than 50 years, those the least obese, those with the lowest glucose levels, who is not using beta-blockers and who had never smoked showed that they were the most frequently detected for brown adipose tissue using the univariate analysis. It was detected to be less frequently in patients above 64 years. BMI was not a factor which predicted the presence of the brown adipose tissue in the multivariate analysis.
In conclusion men contained more deposits of white adipose tissue than women while women below the age of 50 contained browner adipose tissue than men.
Did you all know that VIAGRA is a drug that was developed in 1998 as a pharmaceutical product used to treat high blood pressure but it was later observed that in young medical students it causes an adverse event called an erection which was a shock to the scientists. ‘Viagra is the first orally administered phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 as the first truly effective oral medication for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.’
How does this inhibitor work? The smooth muscle in the human penis is called the corpus cavernosum which contains compounds called PDE receptors. The type-5 receptor is responsible for creating the erection. Nitric oxide is released from nerves within the corpus cavernosum during sexual stimulation which activates an enzyme called guanylate cyclasa. This enzyme helps elevate the level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which in turn acts to relax the cavernosum tissue and an erection occurs. By inhibiting the breakdown of the cGMP the ingredients in Viagra induce and enhance the relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Thus Viagra prevents the breakdown of a compound that produces an erection thereby prolonging it and even stimulating its occurrence in men who would not have a strong erection otherwise. When taken orally Viagra is rapidly absorbed and maximum concentrations are seen within one hour after taking the pill while the speed which a drug is broken down by the body is about three to five hours.
Enzymes is such a broad topic that i can’t seem to stop myself from obtaining more and more info on this topic everyday. 🙂
TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT SOME USES OF ENZYMES:
In the home:
can be used as washing powders and detergents which contain the enzymes amylase, lipases and proteases. These assist in the break down of stains that contain carbohydrate, fat and protein.
In food production:
amylases present in yeast are used in brewing and baking to convert sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
proteases are used in tenderising meat.
rennin is essential to create cheese.
Invertase is used to make soft centred sweets such as thin chocolate covered mints.
In industrial processes:
amylases are used in textile and paper production.
ficin is used in photography processes.
bacterial proteases used in making leather, textiles and in laundry.
catalase used in rubber production.
taq polymerase used in amplifying DNA found at crime scenes.
pepsin is used in the pharmaceutical industry.
enzymes are uses for killing disease-causing micro organisms.
proteases prompt wound healing.
diagnosing certain diseases can be done eg – when the liver is affected enzymes leak into the bloodstream.
glucose oxidase used to monitor blood sugar levels.
enzymes are used as medicines to replace enzyme deficiencies in patients like is the use of blood clotting factors to treat haemoplilia OR the opposite where proteases are used to degrade fibrin to prevent the formation of dangerous blood clots.
the chemical synthesis of complex drugs is difficult therefore companies turn to enzymes to perform chemical conversions.
used to aid digestion, to supplement the natural amylase, lipase and protease produced by the pancreas. People with lactose intolerance lose the enzyme lactase. Lactase supplements help to avoid stomach upsets for these people.
The oldest known enzyme reaction is alcoholic fermentation until Louise Pasteur proved otherwise in 1857. Pasteur found that fermentation was caused by yeast cells digesting sugar for their own nourishment. He said that there was something called fermence that was able to convert the sugar to ethanol.
In 1897 Eduard Buchner discovered that fermentation actually does not require the presence of living yeast cells. Buchner made an extract of yeast cells by grinding them and filtering off the remaining cell debris. Then he added a preservative ‘sugar’ to the resulting cell-free solution to preserve it for future study. He observed that fermentation, the formation of alcohol from sugar, occurred. Buchner then realized that living cells were not required for carrying out metabolic processes such as fermentation. Instead, there must be some small entities capable of converting sugar to alcohol. These entities were enzymes. After Buchner’s discovery, most scientists assumed that fermentation and other metabolic reactions were caused by enzymes.
All attempts to isolate and determine the chemical nature of enzymes were unsuccessful until 1926. An American biochemist James Sumner isolated the enzyme urease from the jackbean after nine years of research. The enzymes pepsin and trypsin were isolated. It was later shown that enzymes are proteins.