Questions to ask when studying cellular respiration:
1. where is glycolysis occurring?
2. what are the 10 enzyme involved?
3. what are the reactants and products formed?
4. is there any gain of loss at the end of glycolysis?
5. what does this process require in order to continue?
6. is there any cofactors necessary for the catalyzed reactions to continue?
1. what is the reactant and product involved?
2. what is the enzyme involved?
3. is there any cofactors needed for this process to continue?
4. at the end of this reaction what happens to the products formed (Acetyl-CoA)?
5. where in the cell does this process occur?
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
1. how many ATP, NADH and FADH2 is generated?
2. is ATP used in this process?
3. what product of respiration is formed at this stage through the metabolism of Acety-CoA?
hint- Glucose + Oxygen —-> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2 —-> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
4. where in the cell does this process occur?
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN- CHEMIOSMOSIS
1. what do you understand by the chemiosmosis theory?
2. where in the cell is the ETC located?
3. what is the product of respiration formed at this stage?
4. how is ATP generated by this process?
5. what do you understand by the terms ATP synthase, Complexes 1, 2, 3 and 4?
6. how do protons and electrons flow across and along the organelle’s membrane?
THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN:
It is made up of four complexes which is found on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The goal of this chain is to break down NADH and FADH2 and pump H+ into the outer compartment of the mitochondria. In this reaction the Electron Transport Chain creates a gradient which is used to produce ATP similar to chloroplast. Electrons move down an energy gradient until they meet the ultimate electron acceptor-> oxygen gas (O2).
- Electron Transport Phosphorylation typically produces 32 ATP’s.
- ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP syntase.